Impact of Water Jets

What is the impact of jets of water in hydraulic machines and fluid dynamics? What force does a water jet imposes on different surfaces like plane surface, curved surface and moving curved vanes etc.

 The following relations are important :

(a) Force exerted by a jet of water impinging normally on a fixed plate,


(b) Force exerted by a jet of water impinging normally (i.e. perpendicular) on a fixed plate inclined at an angle 0 (as shown in Fig. 4.1) is
                           

Force exerted by the jet in the direction of flow,
 

and force exerted by the jet in a direction normal to flow,


(c) When a jet of water enters and leaves the curved fixed plate or vane tangentially, then the force of the jet along normal to the plate

 

(d) Force exerted by a jet of water impinging normally on a plate which due to the impact of jet, moves in the direction of jet with a velocity v is


(e) When a jet of water enters and leaves a moving curved vane, then the force of jet in the direction of motion of the vane is


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