The combustion of fuels may be defined as a chemical combination of oxygen, in the atmospheric air, and hydro-carbons. The following chemical equations for the chemical combination of oxygen (representing combustion) are important :

**1. When carbon burns in sufficient quantity of oxygen**, carbon dioxide is produced along with a release of large amount of heat. This is represented by the following chemical equation :

It means that 1 kg of carbon requires 8 / 3 kg of oxygen for its complete combustion, and produces 11 / 3 kg of carbon dioxide gas.

**2. If sufficient oxygen is not available**, then combustion of carbon is incomplete. It then produces carbon monoxide instead of carbon dioxide. It is represented by the following chemical equation:

It means that 1 kg of carbon requires 4 / 3 kg of oxygen, and produces 7 / 3 kg of carbon monoxide.

**3. If carbon monoxide is burnt further**, it is converted into carbon dioxide. Thus

It means that 1 kg of carbon monoxide requires 4 7 kg of oxygen, and produces 11 / 7 kg of carbon dioxide.

It means that 1 kg of sulphur requires 1 kg of oxygen for complete combustion to produce 2 kg of sulphur dioxide.

**4. When sulphur burns with oxygen**, it produces sulphur dioxide. This is represented by the following chemical equationIt means that 1 kg of sulphur requires 1 kg of oxygen for complete combustion to produce 2 kg of sulphur dioxide.

**5.**

It means that 2 volumes of hydrogen require 1 volume of oxygen to produce 2 volumes of water or steam.

Or in other words, 1 kg of hydrogen requires 8 kg of oxygen and produces 9 kg of water or steam.

It means that 1 volume of methane requires 2 volumes of oxygen and produces 1 volume of carbon dioxide and 2 volumes of water or steam.

Or in other words, 1 kg of methane requires 4 kg of oxygen and produces 11 / 4 kg of carbon dioxide and 9 / 4 kg of water or steam.

Or in other words, 1 kg of hydrogen requires 8 kg of oxygen and produces 9 kg of water or steam.

**6.**It means that 1 volume of methane requires 2 volumes of oxygen and produces 1 volume of carbon dioxide and 2 volumes of water or steam.

Or in other words, 1 kg of methane requires 4 kg of oxygen and produces 11 / 4 kg of carbon dioxide and 9 / 4 kg of water or steam.

**7.**

It means that 1 volume of ethylene requires 3 volumes of oxygen and produces 2 volumes of carbon dioxide and 2 volumes of water or steam.

Or in other words, 1 kg of ethylene requires 24 / 7 kg of oxygen and produces 22 / 7 kg of carbon dioxide and 9 / 7 kg of water or steam.

Or in other words, 1 kg of ethylene requires 24 / 7 kg of oxygen and produces 22 / 7 kg of carbon dioxide and 9 / 7 kg of water or steam.

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