Density or mass density, Weight density or specific weight, specific volume and specific gravity are important terms used in Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics :

where

m = Mass of the liquid, and

V = Volume of the liquid.

**I. Density or mass density.**It is defined as the mass per unit volume of a liquid at a standard temperature and pressure. It is usually denoted by p (rho). It is expressed in kg/m3. Mathematically, density or mass density,where

m = Mass of the liquid, and

V = Volume of the liquid.

**It is defined as the weight per unit volume of a liquid at a standard temperature and pressure. It is usually denoted by w. It is expressed in kN/m3 or N/m3 or N/mm3. Mathematically, weight density or specific weight,**

2. Weight density or specific weight.2. Weight density or specific weight.

**Note : For water, w = 9.81 kN / m3 = 9.81 x 103 N / m3 = 9.81 x 10-6 N / mm3.****3. Specific volume.**It is defined as the volume per unit mass of the liquid. It is denoted by v. Mathematically, specific volume,**4. Specific gravity.**It is defined as the ratio of specific weight of a liquid to the specific weight of pure water at a standard temperature (4°C). It has no units.**Note: The specific gravity of pure water is taken as unity.**

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