Skip to main content

Tyres: Function, Structure & Cross Bias vs Radial Ply

What is function of tyres? Basic structure and components of tyres. Advantages of radial tyres over cross-bias tyres.

The tyres basically perform the following functions:

  1. It supports the vehicle weight,
  2. It transfers the traction and braking force,
  3. It changes and maintain the direction of travel, and
  4. It absorbs road shocks (due to road irregularities) by acting as a spring in the total suspension system.

A tyre may have a cross ply construction or a radial ply construction as shown in Figure (a) and (b) respectively. In the cross ply tyre construction, the alternate layers of cords run in opposite diagonal directions. It is also known as cross-bias tyre construction. In radial ply tyre construction, the cords run radially from bead to bead.

The basic structure of tyre consists of the following components:

1. Tread

It is the part which comes into contact with the road surface. The tread is made from a mixture of many different kinds of natural and synthetic rubbers. It protects the body and provides high grip, longer life, maneuverability and durability to the tyre.

2. Steel belts

In steel belted radial tyres, belts made from steel are used to reinforce the area under the tread. These belts provide puncture resistance and help the tyre stay flat so that it make?, the best contact with the road.

3. Bead wires

The bead is a loop of high strength steel cable coated with rubber. It gives the tyre the strength it needs to stay seated on the wheel rim and to handle the forces applied by the tyre mounting machines when tyres are installed on rims.

4. Body

It sustains the inflation pressure and endures load and road shocks. The body is made up of several layers of different fabrics, called plies. The most commonly used ply fabric is polyester cord.

5. Sidewall

It is the most flexible part of the tyre and provides the lateral stability to the tyre.

Radial Tyres vs Cross-bias Tyres

Advantages of Radial Tyres over Cross-bias Tyres

The following are the advantages of radial tyres over cross-bias tyres:

1. Better safety (shorter braking distance)

The braking efficiency of radial tyres on wet roads is better due to stiffer tread and greater side wall flexibility.

2. Better control

On turning, a radial tyre has less tendency to distort and lift off the road from one side. Thus, there is a better contact of tyre and hence great stability and precise steering are obtained.

3. Fewer punctures

The radial tyres are provided with dual steel belts due to which there is less tendency of puncture in radial tyres.

4. Lower fuel consumption

The rolling resistance of radial tyres is lower due to side wall rigidity and stiffer tread due to which fuel consumption is lower.

5. Greater resistance to wear (longer tread life)

The life of the tyre is normally increased by 50%. This is due to less slip and less internal losses.

Note: The advantage of bias ply tyre over radial ply tyre is smoother ride at low speeds of the vehicle. 

Comments

Popular posts from this blog

Are Engineers Favourite Among Girls?

What do girls think about men who are engineers and what type of engineers are most favourite among girls? A survey was conducted by a team of aboutmech with members chosen from different countries. Each team member carried out a neutral survey in his/ her country to evaluate what females think about most of the engineers from different engineering branches. An overview of different questions asked in survey is given below: Question: Which male engineers do you find more attractive as a husband? Almost 50% women voted for mechanical engineers to be the most attractive husbands among other engineers. So mechanical engineers are most favourite among girls as a husband. They find them more trustworthy, intelligent, and creative. A married women from California said, “If your husband is a mechanical engineer, he will help you in everyday tasks. Because mechanical engineers are good team players and they have creative ideas about everything.” Which male engineers do you find mo

Best CV Format for Mechanical Engineers

Fifty percent engineers fail to grab a dream job because of basic faults in their CVs/ Resume. This article tells you about best CV format for mechanical engineers and how you are supposed to design your CV when applying for jobs. You CV is your first impression on future employer. He/ she does not know you. Your CV is the only representation of your personality. He/ she may select or reject you after first glance on your resume.  I have experienced shortlisting and interviewing candidates for different jobs. I was astonished to learn that most of the candidates simply copy paste each others CVs without any changes at all. These types of CVs are rejected immediately. I am not trying to tell you that you should avoid copying, rather i ma telling you to refrain from giving your CV to your friends. An ideal CV consists of following portions: Name/ Address of the applicant Objective Education Record Employment History Professional Skills Awards & Achievements Co

Engineering Mechanics - Introduction

The Engineering Mechanics is that branch of Engineering-science which deals with the principles of mechanics along with their applications to engineering problems. It is sub-divided into the following two main groups: (a) Statics, and (b) Dynamics The Statics is that branch of Engineering Mechanics which deals with the forces and their effects, while acting upon the bodies at rest. The Dynamics is that branch of Engineering Mechanics which deals with the forces and their effects, while acting upon the bodies in motion. It is further sub-divided into the following two branches: (i) Kinetics, and (ii) Kinematics The Kinetics is that branch of Dynamics, which deals with the bodies in motion due to the application of forces. The Kinematics is that branch of Dynamics which deals with the bodies in motion without taking into account the forces which are responsible for the motion.