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Automatic Transmission

The automatic transmission (briefly written as AT) allows the vehicle to automatically perform the gearshift operations in response to load, speed, and other relevant conditions. The principal components of an automatic transmission are the torque converter, the gear unit, and the hydraulic unit.

The function of the torque converter mechanism is to transfer the engine's output power to the gear unit through the action of a special fluid. However, it also operates in the complete reverse also. It may be noted that when the vehicle is stopped, it is important for the torque converter's fluid to absorb any variation in speed and not to transfer engine power in such a situation. Further, the torque converter has another important function of increasing the engine torque in a set output range.

However, it is not possible to deal adequately with all possible situations of driving using torque increases generated by the torque converter alone. For this reason, further changes to the driving force are made to the gear unit in accordance with the current driving conditions. In addition, the gear unit also implements the necessary gear changes when the vehicle is to be driven in reverse.

The hydraulic control unit converts engine load, speed, and other similar variables into hydraulic signals and controls the shifting of the gear unit in accordance with the corresponding hydraulic pressures. This component also performs control of the lock-up clutch.

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